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Title: Bilberry Adulteration Using the Food Dye Amaranth
Contributor(s): Penman, K (author); Halstead, C (author); Matthias, A (author); De Voss, J (author); Stuthe, J (author); Bone, Kerry (author); Lehmann, R (author)
Publication Date: 2006
DOI: 10.1021/jf061387d
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Abstract: 'Vaccinium myrtillus' or bilberry fruit is a commonly used herbal product. The usual method of determining the anthocyanin content is a single-wavelength spectrophotometric assay. Using this method, anthocyanin levels of two extracts were found to be 25% as claimed by the manufacturers. When high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used, however, one extract was found to contain 9% anthocyanins probably not derived from 'V. myrtillus' but from an adulterant. This adulterant was subsequently identified, using HPLC, mass spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance, as amaranth, that is, 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-sulfo-1-naphthalenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium saltsa synthetic dark red sulfonic acid based naphthylazo dye. As described in this study, if deliberate adulteration occurs in an extract, a single-wavelength spectrophotometric assay is inadequate to accurately determine the levels of compounds such as anthocyanins. Detection of deliberate adulteration in commercial samples thus requires the use of alternative, more sophisticated, methods of analysis such as HPLC with photodiode array detection as a minimum.
Publication Type: Journal Article
Source of Publication: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v.54, p. 7378-7382
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Place of Publication: Washington, United States of America
ISSN: 0021-8561
Field of Research (FOR): 220107 Professional Ethics (incl police and research ethics)
Peer Reviewed: Yes
HERDC Category Description: C1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journal
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