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Title: Echinacea alkamide disposition and pharmacokinetics in humans after tablet ingestion
Contributor(s): Matthias, A (author); Addison, RS (author); Penman, KG (author); Dickinson, RG (author); Bone, Kerry (author); Lehmann, RP (author)
Publication Date: 2005
DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2005.04.009
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Abstract: Echinacea is a widely used herbal remedy for the treatment of colds and other infections. However, almost nothing is known about the disposition and pharmacokinetics of any of its components, particularly the alkamides and caffeic acid conjugates which are thought to be the active phytochemicals. In this investigation, we have examined serial plasma samples from 9 healthy volunteers who ingested echinacea tablets manufactured from ethanolic liquid extracts of Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea immediately after a standard high fat breakfast. Caffeic acid conjugates could not be identified in any plasma sample at any time after tablet ingestion. Alkamides were rapidly absorbed and were measurable in plasma 20 min after tablet ingestion and remained detectable for up to 12 h. Concentration–time curves for 2,4-diene and 2-ene alkamides were determined. The maximal concentrations for the sum of alkamides in human plasma were reached within 2.3 h post ingestion and averaged 336 ± 131 ng eq/mL plasma. No obvious differences were observed in the pharmacokinetics of individual or total alkamides in 2 additional fasted subjects who took the same dose of the echinacea preparation. This single dose study provides evidence that alkamides are orally available and that their pharmacokinetics are in agreement with the one dose three times daily regimen already recommended for echinacea.
Publication Type: Journal Article
Source of Publication: Life Sciences, 77(16), p. 2018-2029
Publisher: Elsevier
Place of Publication: United States
ISSN: 0024-3205
Field of Research (FOR): 111502 Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Peer Reviewed: Yes
HERDC Category Description: C1 Refereed Article in a Scholarly Journal
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